Disposal and recycling of waste in Ukraine

Disposal of medical waste by hazard class

Most medical waste is dangerous because it can significantly damage the ecosystem, cause epidemics, destroy all life in the contaminated area.

Medical waste classification

In Ukraine, medical waste is classified into 4 groups:

  • A - epidemiologically safe;
  • B - epidemiologically dangerous;
  • C - toxicologically dangerous;
  • D - radiation hazardous.

Class A medical waste is considered to be the only safe. This group includes all garbage that has not been in contact with patients (biofluids), as well as food debris (except for skin venereal and infectious wards). Such waste can be disposed of at landfills.

Class B medical waste is any item that has come into contact with infected patients. They are particularly dangerous, as they represent a high epidemiological threat. The collection, storage, transportation and disposal of class B waste must be carried out with extreme caution, since only one mistake can lead to contamination of the area for kilometers around, including the population living there.

A particular threat is medical grade C waste. These are toxicologically hazardous substances and objects whose composition and properties are close to industrial. Class C waste includes all substances that are recognized as toxic. Among them:

  • medicines that were previously used as medicines, disinfectors or for diagnosis, and at the moment can not be used;
  • toxic pharmaceutical waste;
  • any medical devices and devices that contain mercury in any form, including its vapors (lamps, thermometers And so on);
  • waste resulting from the operation of equipment and / or transport, which pose a toxic threat.

Class D medical waste is solid and liquid substances and materials that contain a high concentration of radioactive isotopes. Waste belongs to this class in the event that the level of radiation emitted by them exceeds the permissible safety standards. It can be both various solutions, and the equipment.

Each class of medical waste poses a different threat to the environment and humanity as well, and therefore not only separate class garbage is disposed of, but also collected, stored and transported in a different container with appropriate labeling. It can be soft and hard packaging depending on the hazard class (bags, bags, containers with airtight lids, etc.) with a specific color marking:

  • A - white or green;
  • B is red;
  • C is yellow;
  • D is black.

Such marking allows at a glance to assess the danger of waste.

What is the danger of medical waste?

Although class A medical waste does not pose an epidemiological hazard, its unauthorized release or disposal is considered unacceptable. If everyone wants to get rid of the utilities convenient for him ways, it will lead to the emergence of new landfills in areas that are not intended for this, to the pollution of land, water and other unpleasant consequences.

Class B waste is a group of objects or substances (liquid, solid) that have been in contact with people infected with infectious diseases, or directly with pathogenic microorganisms. Such waste most often appears in medical dispensaries, laboratories. They can be carriers of dangerous diseases such as tuberculosis, plague, cholera and others. Getting into the air, soil and water, pathogens spread rapidly, infecting everything and everyone around, causing epidemics. As a result, thousands of people may be affected, since many diseases are difficult to treat. Therefore, dumping and burning in the open air of class B waste is unacceptable and punishable by law.

Class C medical waste is one of the main sources of toxic microorganisms that infect humans and the ecosystem. They are able to spread over thousands of square kilometers around, transmitting pathogenic microorganisms through the air, soil, groundwater. As a result, the ecosystem will suffer, all living organisms (both humans, and plant, animal world).

Unauthorized release of Class D medical waste can lead to the spread of radiation and exposure of all living things. The consequences for the human body depend on the level and duration of exposure to hazardous substances. To begin with, infected people may experience nausea, vomiting, fever, and headaches. Over time, the symptoms intensify, internal organs and systems begin to be affected. With high concentrations of radiation or prolonged exposure, mutations are possible that can be transmitted to future generations, there is a high probability of developing cancer.

How to dispose of medical waste?

All medical waste is disposed of in accordance with legal requirements and generally accepted environmental safety standards. If hazardous waste is burned in an open area or buried without first neutralizing it, then toxic substances will get into the ecosystem, which will quickly spread, destroying everything around. Various methods can be used for the disposal of medical waste:

  • heat treatment, which includes pyrolysis, combustion using electric current or incinerators;
  • disposal, before which it is necessary to deactivate toxic substances;
  • alternative methods, which include various thermal and thermochemical methods of neutralization and destruction of raw materials.

All work related to the disposal of medical waste, regardless of the hazard class, can be performed only by a specialized company that has the appropriate permits and licenses for it.

There are cases when pharmacological companies, microbiological laboratories or medical dispensaries ignore the rules of medical waste disposal. Instead of proper disposal and destruction of waste, either landfills are arranged or waste is simply incinerated in open areas, which causes irreparable damage to the entire ecosystem. Track the transport company, which, violating all the rules and safety standards, is engaged in such activities is not difficult. The offender may not only pay an impressive fine, but also risk temporarily losing the right to exercise his activity. Also responsible persons can lose their freedom.

The penalty for violation of medical waste disposal rules is several dozen times the cost of this service in specialized companies. Order disposal of medical, as well as any household and industrial waste at affordable prices can be in the company UtilVtorProm. We carry out all work in compliance with the technology and safety rules for waste disposal, according to their hazard class, and also provide full documentary support.

Disposal of medical waste that poses a threat of any nature (epidemiological, toxicological, radiation) provides for mandatory preliminary disinfection of hazardous components.

Regardless of the disposal method chosen, the following scheme should be followed for medical waste:

  1. Collection All waste material is collected for further disinfection and disposal. Waste of different classes is sorted separately from others.
  2. Disinfection. Chemical disinfectants that have bactericidal properties, or mechanical effects on wastes by treating them with hot water vapor, electromagnetic radiation or radiation, as well as other detoxification methods, are used.
  3. Storage. If necessary, waste is stored in a sealed package that cannot be accidentally punctured or damaged. One-time packages are allowed provided they are securely fixed on special racks. Packaging must be labeled according to the hazard class of the waste.
  4. Transportation of salvage. It is carried out in the same container as their storage. In addition to the label with a hazard class on the containers, the packages should contain information about the institution from which the waste is being transported.
  5. Recycling of neutralized components for recycling (plastic, metal, glass and other materials), which can be reused.
  6. Recycling waste materials. Occurs by burial or incineration in special closed type furnaces.

For medical waste, it is important to use the correct packaging with appropriate labeling to help quickly locate containers and packages, even if they accidentally fall into other waste.


Take a look at these pages: Disposal of ampoules, Utilization of biological material, Disposal of household appliances, Recycling TVs, Utilization of air conditioners





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